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5003 - Lockout/Tagout
The following Lockout/Tagout program has been developed for employees responsible for operating, servicing, maintaining, and repairing Layton City’s machines and equipment. The program covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machine or equipment, or the release of stored energy, could cause injury to employees. Adhering to the following Lockout/Tagout program will control such hazardous energy. Lockout/Tagout will help to safeguard employees from hazardous energy while they are performing service, maintenance, or repair on machines and equipment by effectively blocking all energy sources to the machine or equipment thus rendering it inoperable and incapable of movement. This program is governed by 29 CFR 1910.147, 1910.331, 1910.332, 1910.333, 30 CFR 56.12017 and is regulated by the U.S Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).
The purpose of this Lockout/Tagout program is to prevent injuries, which are the result of the inadvertent and unexpected energization, start up, movement, or release of energy to equipment or machines while they are being serviced, maintained, or repaired.
Energy-Isolating Device – any mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy. These include, but are not limited to, manually operated electrical circuit breakers, disconnect switches, line valves, and blocks.
Lockout – the placement of a lockout device, such as a padlock, on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with this Lockout/Tagout program to ensure that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.
Tagout – the placement of a Tagout device, such as a tag with a fastener, on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with this Lockout/Tagout program, to indicate that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the Tagout device is removed. Tagout will be used only when Lockout is not feasible in which case Tagout will be used alone.
Affected Employee – An employee whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under Lockout/Tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
Authorized Employee – An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes and authorized employee when that employee’s duties include performing servicing or maintenance under Lockout/Tagout.
Hazardous Energy – There are two types of hazardous energy:
1. Primary Energy – Energy that supplies power to the machine or equipment during its operation. Examples of primary energies are:
- Electrical Energy: Most equipment is powered by electricity in some way so at least one electrical disconnect will usually have to be locked and/or tagged out.
- Hydraulic Energy: Hydraulic energy is usually locked out at the electrical disconnect for the pump motor. If more than one machine is being supplied by the same pump, however, then the actual valves that control the flow of hydraulic fluid to the machine being serviced will have to be locked and/or tagged out.
- Pneumatic Energy: Pneumatic energy can be locked out at the electrical disconnect supplying the compressor, however, a compressor which feeds a large air distribution system will have to be locked and/or tagged out at the valves supplying the flow to the machine being serviced.
- Gas, Water, Steam, Chemicals: These substances are sometimes used to provide primary energy for machines and equipment.
2. Secondary Energy – Energy that is present even if the primary energy source is disconnected. Examples of secondary energies are:
· Residual or Stored Energy – This is energy which accumulates during the machine or equipment’s operation and remains after the machine or equipment is shut down and the primary power source is disconnected.
Examples of residual or stored energy are:
- Stored mechanical energy in a compressed spring.
- Electrical energy stored in a capacitor or other high capacitance elements.
- Residual pressures in hydraulic or air lines.
Once the primary energy source has been disconnected and locked out, these residual or stored energies must be relieved, bled, dissipated, grounded, or locked out.
· Gravity – Gravity is an energy that pulls all objects toward the center of the earth. Chain, block, or pin any part of the machine that could potentially move under the force of gravity.
· Mechanical Motion – Mechanical motion is the actual moving parts of the machine or piece of equipment such as a flywheel or cam. Once the primary energy source has been shut down mechanical motion usually stops although it may take a little while for the energy to completely dissipate.
Lockout Devices – Will be supplied by the Department Director to all authorized employees upon request. It will be a keyed padlock. Each authorized employee must have his or her own padlock and key. Borrowing or using another authorized employee’s padlock is prohibited, as is allowing anyone else to use your key to unlock your padlock during Lockout/Tagout procedures. These padlocks are to be used only for Lockout/Tagout procedures. Lockout devices are also:
· Standardized: Same size, shape, color, etc.
· Durable: able to withstand the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum duration of the expected exposure.
· Substantial: tough enough to prevent removal except by excessive force such as bolt cutter or special tools.
· Identifiable: Locks must clearly identify the employee who applies them. This means you must write your name on the lock.
Tagout Devices – Will be supplied by the supervisor to all authorized employees upon request. It will be a tag, which will say DO NOT REMOVE THIS TAG and DO NOT OPERATE. The tags will also:
· Have a space for the authorized employee to write his or her name.
· Utilize the same print and format.
· Have a means of attachment (a fastener) that is non-reusable, attachable by hand, self-locking, non-releasable, and able to withstand a minimum unlocking strength of 50 pounds.
· Be constructed and printed so that they do not deteriorate or become illegible when used in corrosive or wet environments.
Group Lock Boxes - Will be a hasp with a primary lock to be used by the delegated authorized employee and will have several places for personal locks to be attached. These hasps are designed so that they cannot be revoked until the last lock is unfastened.
Group Tags – Will be the same as individual or personal tags. The only exception is that the delegated authorized employee must write Group Tag somewhere clearly visible on the tag and must write “Delegated” near his or her name in the space provided to identify himself or herself as the delegated authorized employee.
Department directors are responsible for the operation, servicing, maintenance, or repair of equipment or other machines; ensuring employees are aware of and have been trained in Lockout/Tagout procedures. Each authorized employee is responsible for acquiring and keeping his or her own lockout and Tagout device(s) and accompanying key and fastener(s). Any person found to be in non-compliance with this section would be subject to discipline up to and including termination of employment.
Energy Control Procedure:
This Lockout/Tagout program must be implemented and followed any time servicing or maintenance is being performed on machines or equipment which requires the person performing the work (the authorized employee) to remove or bypass a guard or safety device or if that employee must place any part of his or her body into a dangerous area or zone associated with the machines operating cycle. The eight steps to the program are:
Know your equipment: Be sure to know what energies and hazards are present and how to control them before beginning any work. Consider the following:
- What primary energy sources are involved? Identify all forms of primary energy operating the machine or equipment.
- What secondary energy is present? Identify all forms of secondary energy.
- What is the problem - mechanical failure, jamming, cleaning, or routine maintenance? Know what type of work you will be performing.
- Do you have the proper Lockout and Tagout devices? Do not begin any work that requires Lockout/Tagout until you have all the required Lockout and Tagout devices.
- Finally, remind yourself that over-confidence and taking short cuts can cause serious injury or death. Follow all procedures, and use any precautions necessary.
2. Notify Others: Before starting any Lockout/Tagout procedure notify your supervisor and all affected employees as to the work you will be performing.
3. Shut Off Power: Shut off all controls supplying primary energy to the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained. If these controls are not near the energy-isolating device then Tagout the controls so no one attempts to operate the machine or equipment while you are locking and/or tagging out the energy-isolating device. Note: Simply turning off the primary power to the machine or equipment is not a substitute for Lockout/Tagout procedures.
4. Lockout/Tagout All Primary Energy Sources: Lockout/Tagout all primary energies at their source (energy-isolating device). This means you must:
- Place a lock on the energy-isolating device making it impossible to re-engage or re-connect the energy without first removing the lock; and
- Place a tag in clear view of anyone who may try to re-engage or re-connect the energy-isolating device to warn him or her that the equipment has been locked out.
If and only if it is not possible to lockout the energy-isolating device because there is no place to attach the lock, then you may use the Tagout alone providing you and all other affected employees are aware that:
Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy-isolating devices and do not provide the physical restraint of a lock.
- When a tag is attached to an isolating means, it is not to be removed except by the authorized employee who applied it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored or otherwise defeated.
- Tags must be legible and understandable by all employees.
- Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials that will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace.
- Tags may evoke a false sense of security. They are only one part of the Lockout/Tagout program.
- Tags must be securely attached to the energy-isolating devices so that they cannot be detached accidentally during use.
5. Control or Dissipate Secondary Energy: Effectively control or dissipate all secondary energy. This may require bleeding air lines, blocking wheels, gates, springs, or other moving parts, draining off hot or hazardous materials, dissipating hydraulic pressures, discharging capacitors, removing batteries, etc…
6. Verify the Lockout: Never assume that the lockout has worked. Once all the energy sources are locked out and all residual energy has been controlled or dissipated, try the machines controls and be sure there is no movement and that no indicator lights show power. Visually check the machine to be sure all moving parts are stable.
7. Perform Servicing or Maintenance: It is now safe for you to perform the servicing or maintenance. If you need to remove the lock or tag in order to test the machine or equipment then you must replace the lock and/or tag before continuing any work, no matter how minor it is.
8. Finish Safely: When the repairs or maintenance have been complete, be sure all tools, restraints and other equipment have been removed from the machine and the guards replaced. Notify affected employees that you’re about to put the machine back into service, and be sure all employees are safely clear of the machine. If you used warning tags at the control switches, leave them in place while you remove the locks and tags and re-energize the machine. THE AUTHORIZED EMPLOYEE WHO PLACED THE LOCKS AND TAGS IS THE ONLY PERSON WHO CAN REMOVE THEM. When you’re sure everything is working properly remove the tags and tell the other employees the machine is ready for operation.
Group Lockout: In a lockout situation where the number of authorized employees involved makes personal lockout impractical, primary responsibility for a number of employees may be delegated to one authorized employee. The delegated authorized employee is responsible for following the procedure outlined above and assuring that the lockout remains in force as long as anyone is in a position to be injured. Group lockout of this nature is only allowed when the entire group (including the delegated authorized employee) works together on the same machine. The delegated authorized employee is accountable for each individual in the crew and places a group lock box and tag representing his group. Each authorized employee who, as part of the group, performs lock and tag to the group lock box and tag before beginning any such work shall follow all 8 steps in the Lockout/Tagout procedure.
Shift or Personnel Changes: If work must continue through a shift or personnel changes, then the authorized employee(s) who is going off must follow all 8 steps in the Lockout/Tagout procedure before the authorized employee coming on begins work. The oncoming authorized employee must then follow the entire Lockout/Tagout procedure.
Lockout/Tagout for Electrical Work: When using Lockout/Tagout for the purpose of doing any electrical work, special precautions must be taken to be sure the circuit is deactivated. You must follow the Lockout/Tagout procedure outlined above with the following conditions:
1. Tagout: If (and ONLY if) a lock cannot be used then a tag may be used alone if it is supplemented by at least one additional safety measure that provides a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by use of a lock including:
The removal of an isolating circuit element
- The blocking of a controlling switch
- The opening of an extra disconnecting device
2. Verification: Under the Lockout/Tagout procedure, a qualified person must perform the verification of Lockout. This qualified person must use test equipment to test the circuit elements and electrical parts of equipment to which authorized employees will be exposed and shall verify that the circuit elements and equipment parts are de-energized. The test shall also determine if any energized condition exists as a result of inadvertently induced voltage or unrelated voltage backfeed even though specific parts of the circuit have been de-energized and presumed to be safe. If the circuit to be tested is over 600 volts, nominal, the test equipment shall be checked for proper operation immediately before and immediately after the test. This can be accomplished by using a voltmeter to test a live circuit with a known voltage before and after testing the de-energized circuit.
3. Work on Energized Equipment: Only qualified persons may work on electric circuit parts or equipment that have not been de-energized in accordance with the Lockout/Tagout procedure. Such persons shall be capable of working safely on energized circuits and shall be familiar with the proper use of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools.
Periodic inspections of Lockout/Tagout will be conducted at least once a year to ensure that the intent of the program is being met. The inspections will be performed while the Lockout/Tagout procedure is in effect by an authorized employee other that the one(s) utilizing the Lockout/Tagout procedure. The periodic inspections shall include a review, between inspector and each authorized employee, of the employee’s responsibilities during Lockout/Tagout. The inspections will be performed under the direction of the Department Director who is responsible for compliance with this program. The inspector must certify, in writing, that these periodic inspections have been performed and must at least include the following:
A description of the machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was being utilized
- The date of the inspection;
- The employees included in the inspection (authorized and affected); and
- The authorized employee performing the inspection
This documentation must then be forwarded to Layton City’s Risk Management office.
It is the responsibility of the Department Director to ensure all supervisors are trained as to the purpose and function of the Lockout/Tagout program. Authorized employees will receive ongoing training to ensure that they have the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage, and removal of the energy controls. This training will include:
The recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources.
- The type and magnitude of the energy available in the workplace.
- The methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
- The requirements for training of employees who are authorized and all associated documentation.
- The requirements for training affected employees and all associated documentation.